So, we've all needed a
choices list in Django at one time or another, right?
And from the docs we see the example code:
YEAR_IN_SCHOOL_CHOICES = ( ('FR', 'Freshman'), ('SO', 'Sophomore'), ('JR', 'Junior'), ('SR', 'Senior'), )
Which is then quickly amended to:
class Student(models.Model): FRESHMAN = 'FR' SOPHOMORE = 'SO' JUNIOR = 'JR' SENIOR = 'SR' YEAR_IN_SCHOOL_CHOICES = ( (FRESHMAN, 'Freshman'), (SOPHOMORE, 'Sophomore'), (JUNIOR, 'Junior'), (SENIOR, 'Senior'), ) year_in_school = models.CharField(max_length=2, choices=YEAR_IN_SCHOOL_CHOICES, default=FRESHMAN)
Why? Because this avoids the problem of
magic values, an aspect of keeping
Magic values are constants that have meaning; they become a problem [especially with numbers] because you can't be certain if the values are coincidentally the same (i.e. this value is the 2px margin we want in common, but that one just happens to also be 2px...). Much better to give them names, so we can know what the value represents, and know it's not coincidentally the same as another value.
It also means changing the value throughout your code can happen in once place.
Now the values are defined in one place, and easy to access. Instead of having to remember to use 'JR', you can put Student.JUNIOR ; namespacing is thrown in free!
What's wrong with this? Well, nothing, really... except when you have multiple choice fields on the same model.
A possible solution...
As of Python 3.4, we have the
enum lib. For older Python's,
This gives us the use
The above example could be rewritten as:
class Student(models.Model): class YEAR(Enum): FRESHMAN = 'FR' SOHPOMORE = 'SO' JUNIOR = 'JR' SENIOR = 'SR'
Now we can reference the values using Student.YEAR.JUNIOR. Not bad.
>>> Student.YEAR.JUNIOR <YEAR.JUNIOR: 'JR'>
Each values provides its name and value as attributes:
>>> Student.YEAR.JUNIOR.name 'JUNIOR' >>> Student.YEAR.JUNIOR.value 'JR'
This helps us with our last step: to provide this in a way
Fortunately, Enum classes are iterable:
>>> list(Student.YEAR) [<YEAR.FRESHMAN: 'FR'>, <YEAR.SOHPOMORE: 'SO'>, <YEAR.JUNIOR: 'JR'>, <YEAR.SENIOR: 'SR'>]
So we can build choices by just:
year_in_school = models.CharField(max_length=2, choices=((x.value, x.name.title()) for x in YEAR), default=FRESHMAN)
When your values are all integers, there's
class STATE(IntEnum): CANCELLED = -1 PENDING = 0 DECLINED = 1 APPROVED = 2
This provides the same thing, but guarantees the values are integers.
Belt and braces
Finally, just to protect us from us... there's the
This helps ensure that no two names have the same value.
@enum.unique class STATE(enum.IntEnum): CANCELLED = -1 PENDING = 0 DECLINED = 1 APPROVED = 2